(2020/4/20) Two Middle East respiratory syndrome vaccines: first step for other coronavirus vaccines? (+中文摘要轉譯)

目前並無有效預防冠狀病毒感染的疫苗,新冠肺炎病毒(SARS-CoV-2)疫苗也包括在內,全球多個疫苗團隊正在極力開發中,先前MERS病毒(MERS-CoV-2)疫苗已開發出兩種候選疫苗(ChAdOx1 MERS 和 MVA-MERS-S); Dr. Folegatti 和 Dr. Koch兩個研究團隊,不約而同於2020年4月20日的Lancet Infectious Diseases醫學期刊中報告兩種候選疫苗臨床試驗第一階段的結果;然而,在施打疫苗於民眾之前,有三大關鍵門檻要克服:一、什麼免疫反應需要由冠狀病毒疫苗引發,才能預防民眾不被感染或不致得病;二、目前缺乏標準的測量方法可用來評估冠狀病毒疫苗的免疫原性 (immunogenicity);三、動物研究發現某些SARS-CoV 或MERS-CoV 病毒疫苗,與發生嗜伊紅性球肺部浸潤 (eosinophilic pulmonary infiltrates)有關聯;這些因素均突顯開發安全性高新冠肺炎病毒(SARS-CoV-2)疫苗的重要性, 由於先前的SARS和MERS的疫情,遠不如此次新冠肺炎疫情全球大流行的嚴峻,因此無有效疫苗施打於民眾的機會;新冠肺炎病毒疫苗將成為首次冠狀病毒疫苗施打於民眾身上的疫苗,相關研究領域團隊必須維持研究動力,加速新冠肺炎病毒疫苗的研發,為未來新興冠狀病毒感染疫苗的開發做準備。(財團法人國家衛生研究院蔡慧如博士摘要整理)
Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002, the emergence and expansion of endemic and epidemic coronaviruses has been accelerating on a scale not seen for any other group of viruses with pandemic potential. In the past two decades alone, five new human coronaviruses have been discovered, three of which are highly pathogenic.12 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is just the latest example of the danger posed by zoonotic diseases, foreshadowed by the regional, but unabated, emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).3 In recognition of its intrinsic threat to public health and as a prototypical member of the family Coronaviridae, WHO, in 2015, prioritised MERS-CoV as a pathogen to which increased resources should be dedicated for countermeasure research and development. The newly established Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations followed suit with investments in the development of candidate MERS-CoV vaccines.4 In subsequent years, three vaccine candidates have completed initial clinical evaluation and are now ready for advanced testing.5 6 7 8 9

Author: Kayvon Modjarrad, Jerome H Kim

Link: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30317-0/fulltext